Siddami in Russia in the IX-XIV centuries called ordinary earthband peasants. The word "deaths" of Indo-European origin. It is a somewhat modified version of the "CMURD" (or "Smord" lexeme), which meant a "simple person" or "dependent person."
Sadda - initially free residents of the villages. Later they were fixed and began to belong to the princes. Sadda belonged to the lower layers of Russian society, but were not as powerless and dependent as chop. They could have their own land, but they were also obliged to process and land a landowner. At the same time, the price of life and scent, and the Hall was the same. The official penalty for killing any of these people is 5 rubles.
After the adoption of Russia, Christianity appeared another name of the deathbed - "Peasant", which means literally "Christian." Meado is a more pagan concept. At the same time, it was used for a very long time in Russia and gradually began to acquire a negative character. So began to contemptically call commoners.
Messa carried military service. They could either personally participate in a combat campaign as hiking or riders, or to "pay off" the delivery of horses for the cavalry. Santa owned property, so the most wealthy could afford it. They were also part of the rural community. If one of such a landpash is killed, everything that he owned was divided among themselves members of the community (according to the "Russian truth").
Messa could transfer their property to inherit the sons. Behind the absence of the last land, after the death of the scent passed the prince. In the Novgorod Republic, the deathbed was state, therefore treated state land. The prince at the same time could give them to the church or the monastery, then the peasants had to work already on churchmen.
Hollows and their rights
Halls called the most powerful population not only villages, but also cities (weighing). The slave, therefore, could live not only in rural (as a deathbed), but also in urban areas. Unlike Sidda, the boat was absolutely unifuncted. He was practically a slave. The slave position of the Halls was canceled only by Peter I in 1723.
The slaves were slaves from the local population. The other category of slaves - Chelyadins - Princes acquired during conquering campaigns to neighboring or remote land. Chelyadin is a slave service. He was even more unravelable than the slave. Practically equated to things.
The slave position of the Hall was reflected in many legal moments. Such a person fully belonged to the landowner. The latter had the full right to kill his hull for some misdemeanor. For this, no one dare to condemn it. If the feudal killed someone else's Hall, he paid a fine, as for the damage of someone else's property. Also, the slaves did not have land plots or any other valuable property.
Holopas became misconduct, crimes, debts, by birth or resulting in wedding (marriage). If the prince was seriously angry for something on the peasant, he could take away all his property and converted to the rank of Hals ("Russian Rights"). The stratum trader who is not able to pay his debt, "selling himself to the slaves." And of course, the children of the Hall from the first day of life were holopas. A free woman, coming to marry such a person, became a hatop.
These people performed all the work in the houses of the Lords and treated them to the earth along with scenery. They were given all the most dirty, "black" work in the house. But sometimes the slaves were trained and crafts that did not happen to death (they were purely landpashers). Halls merged with might and main. Than Spelling was such a worker, the higher it was on it and the price. If the slave was useful to Mr. and performed his service well, the owner, at will, could take his separate accommodation to his slave or even give free (release free).
Drops of the Halls
The Lord Hopes were divided into classes according to the skills and abilities they possess. The so-called "big chores" were in a sense of privileged slaves. They performed more responsible work (key users) and could lead the "smaller" holopas. The latter performed all the draft work: were bakers, thinners, grooming, shepherds, carpenters, etc. They were a domestic servant. "Small" horses with some kind of useful profession called "business people."
A separate category was the so-called "combat sides". They accompanied Mr. in a military campaign and were selected from among the "big" hills. This category of the population was the main part of the troops and the armed guards of the prince. Compared to other classes of the Khopov, it was quite privileged, something among the peasants and nobles.
Children's kids often hit the children of impoverished boyars, so this category of "servants" had more rights than chernoby-workers and managers. The property of the soldiers could have a horse (sometimes two) and full combat equipment.
Transition to another estate
After the cancellation of serfdom (starting from 1861), a new class was to be formed - mesh. This word was called the urban population of the lowest rank. Messengers became freely published thanks to the peasant reform of death and combat trees, freed for some reason from their military duties (for example, for a long dedicated service).
Messengers were not only free, but also taxable citizens. They could have a bench, crafts, sell the fruits of their work on the market, but were obliged to pay tax. Catherine II officially secured the status of the bureaucracy in the "humble diploma of the city" from 1785. Musians stood on the step below the merchants, but also considered the "right" city inhabitants. They owned most of the urban immovable property.
The class of mesh is also constantly underwent changes. Some innocents did not want or could not pay taxes, so they became peasants. Others received an education and rose to the step above - passed to the category of allocating. So Russian society gradually stratified more and more, and many representatives of the lower layers of the country received new opportunities.
Smerd - who is this whom the so called
Deaddami is called the category of the population, in accordance with the collection of rules and norms of the Kiev Rusi Rusi "Russian True".
They relate To peasants who lived in Russia from 9 to 14th century, their main occupation was agriculture. These people were dependent on the prince.
The history of life of death
Soviet historian Greeks B.D. Gave his definition of the main mass of people for five centuries, calling them members of the rural community, which were engaged in agriculture. They were constantly dependent on the prince for five centuries. If you get acquainted with the Scriptures in the Russian truth, it will become clear that the condemnation of this category of people occurred by the princes.
Middle were put on land They were transferred to generation from generation after their death on the men's line. If the farmer did not have a son, then the inheritance passed to the ownership of the princes. For their killing, exactly the same fines were introduced, as for slaves.
Most often, they worked on state lands and engaged in their treatment, harvesting. So it was in the Novgorod Republic. This is due to the fact that this people belonged to state peasants, but they could be different by belonging. Princely, bishop and monastic deaths were also mentioned in the Scriptures. There was no free leaving of the land.
Property that had no one to convey to princely control. While exactly the same property, but already a community, then it was customary to divide among the members of the entire community. Fine size When murder One of the representatives of this category was five hryvnia. The same fine was paid in the murder of an ordinary hatp. The murder of people was punished with a fine of 40 hryvnia, like any other free resident.
Smerd, who lived in the Novgorod Republic, was dependent on the state. If we consider this concept in a more extensive form and a little later in the time framework, they performed as the basis of the entire population in the country forming the lowest layer - peasants. At their disposal was their own land on which they could do any farm.
It was impossible to carry out activities. For that they paid taxes prince As well as they were obliged to give part of the urban fruits to managers. The prince rightly had the opportunity to transfer and relocate them to other places. People brought to the churches.
The peasants were spent all his life in the weighs, and the siddy - in the villages. Their military service for different sources could be in participating in the hike wax, they could also supply horses to horse wax or independently participate in it.
If we consider the term "Overmember" , During the existence of this category of population, he invests the importance of the seizure of neighboring principalities, when the crossbows of the princes occurred. After a few decades, Sadda disappeared, the peasants appeared on the replacement.
And the next two centuries this term was used To appeal to Prince To the lower layers of the population. But even when this meaning was heard by himself, then, siders called Proshirudin and the fortress peasants, who were tested by tremendous contempt. Such statements of themselves allowed landlords and government representatives.
Origin of the word
This term has come to appeal from Indo-European language. It includes Slavic peoples, Germans, Armenians, Hindus and others. In their translation, it meant a dependent person, an ordinary person.
But there is another version of the origin of the word associated with religious beliefs. In other words, this name was equal to the pagans. In pronunciation of words, one of several existing directions can be distinguished in Hinduism, and it is believed to the most ancient.
Translated from Sanskrit It sounds like "SMIRTI" and means "remember, remembering." In the spaticrous translation, you can find such a definition as "devotee." After some time, this word was used for the name of the rural population. And after the adoption of Christianity, it disappears at all.
Does this word have a direct connection with the concept of "death"
It is not difficult to guess that these words have the same root that proves their close relationship among themselves. Throughout the existence of this category of people in everyday life, such a word was encountered as "Overded." In its value was invested Picture who are sideways по отношению к населению и селениям в период прохождения междоусобиц.
После 15 века смерды сменились на крестьян, тем не менее, само понятие не вымерло и продолжало использоваться в обиходе. Тогда его предназначение заключалось в обращении царя к низшему слою населения. С течением времени, слово стало использоваться в качестве ругательства помещика на провинившуюся прислугу или крестьян.