What pressure is considered high
The perception of increased blood pressure from different people may differ. For example, in some patients discomfort occurs already at 130/85 mm. RT. Art., While other even pressure 145/95 does not cause well-being changes. In medicine there is a diagnosis of "arterial hypertension", which involves an increase in systolic pressure from 140 mm. RT. Art. and and / or 90 mm. RT. Art. And above - diastolic. Values are two, because the heart in humans is reduced (then blood pressure becomes higher), it relaxes (pressure becomes lower). Reducing the muscles of the heart and blood discharge is called systole (from here "systolic" pressure), and relaxation and filling of the heart cavity with blood - diastole (Fig. 1).
It is important to understand that the criteria for arterial hypertension are largely conditional. Moreover, even normal pressure has several gradations (Table 1)
|Categories Hell||Systolic hell||Diastolic hell|
|Optimal||below 120.||below 80.|
|Arterial Hypertension 1 degree||140-159||90-99|
|Arterial hypertension of 2 degrees||160-179||100-109.|
|Arterial Hypertension 3 degrees||180 and higher||110 and higher|
|Isolated systolic arterial hypertension||140 and higher||below 90.|
How to measure pressure
You can measure the pressure at home yourself using a special instrument - a tonometer. High pressure can be a danger to health, so the tonometer should be in each home first aid kit. Tonometers are two types:
- Mechanical. Old kind classic. Less convenient to use, but give a more accurate result.
- Electronic (automatic and semi-automatic - Fig. 2). Work from batteries. The main advantage - you do not need to independently listen to heart blows (which is sometimes quite difficult to do because of the weak pulse filling). But there are such devices and a big minus - the measurement results are not always accurate. When repeated measurement, the numbers may differ slightly.
How to use a mechanical tonometer
In order to measure pressure with a mechanical tonometer (video 1), you need:
- sit in a comfortable position and relax, the hand should be bent in the elbow joint and lie on a flat surface,
- The shoulder part of the hand is free from clothes and fix the cuff on it (its lower edge should be above the elbow bend by 3-4 cm),
- Install the stethoscope (phonenadoscope) on the inside of the bending of the elbow joint in the place where the pulse is best suited,
- With the help of a hand pump, start downloading the air into the cuff,
- The pressure gauge arrow to bring to the values exceeding the estimated pressure by 30-40 mm. RT. Art. (for example, if the normal pressure of the patient is 135/90, then you can stop on the figure 170),
- slowly produce air from the cuff, waiting for the appearance of the tones - these are heartbeat sounds; Their appearance denotes the systolic pressure boundary, and the disappearance is diastolic. Simply put, if the tones appeared on the number 150 and disappeared on the figure 100, then the result is 150/100).
Video 1. How to measure pressure to a mechanical tonometer.
In the absence of stethoscope, the top (systolic) pressure can be measured by following the arrow behavior. It is necessary to notice the testimony when it starts to twitch. However, this method is not very reliable, as often the arrow begins to lift up to the first strong audible blows of the pulse.
If you want to visit the toilet before measuring the pressure, then it is better not to refuse this in this, since the overcrowded bladder contributes to an increase in pressure by about 10 points. It is also important not to measure immediately after intensive exercise or immediately after sleep. If the pressure is too high or too low, the result is to double-check 3 times with an interval of 5-10 minutes. After that, calculate the average values - this is your result. Morning pressure must be measured before and after breakfast, also considering the average indicator.
The effects of increased pressure
High pressure is dangerous primarily by the fact that blood vessels lose their elasticity, and this can lead to their rupture and stroke (violation of the blood supply of the brain). In addition, an increase in blood pressure is fraught with the development of the following complications:
- violation of vision due to the deterioration of the rifle blood supply,
- Full loss of vision as a result of hemorrhage in the vitreous body and / or retina,
- Angina - pain in the heart due to the violation of the blood supply to myocardium,
- Hypertrophy of the left ventricle hearts,
- heart attack - the death of the heart muscle site as a result of the violation of its blood supply,
- heart failure - a cycle of systole-diastole is disturbed, which we wrote above, which leads to a deterioration in blood outflow and ventricular filling,
- renal failure - develops as a result of the deterioration of the kidneys,
- deterioration of the overall state of the nervous system (irritability, fast fatigue, a tendency to depression),
- Violations of the brain as a result of the deterioration of the state of cerebral vessels can be fraught with a decrease in intellectual abilities until the development of the so-called vascular dementia (dementia, which has become the result of chronic brainwater failure).
In some people, the pressure increases asymptomatic, but in most cases the following signs are noted:
- weakness and fast fatigue
- gouring or pulsating headache in the occipital and / or temporal part,
- Breast pain,
- noise in ears,
- shortness of breath with the usual exercise,
- numbness of the limbs
- worsening vision, flickering "flies" before your eyes,
- Increased sensitivity to light (sometimes to sounds).
The appearance of even one or two of the symptoms listed above should be a reason for concern. Some people prefer simply "Thread" an episode of increased pressure "In order not to poison all this chemistry" (that is, pills). But it is impossible to ignore such manifestations, since, as we have spoken above, the increased pressure is fraught with a number of hazardous consequences.
Domestic pressure reduction
Many people who have not previously experienced problems with pressure or simply not paying attention to headache and other symptoms, usually do not know what to do if the testimony of the tonometer confirmed unpleasant fears. The main rules of behavior: calm and deep breathing. To make the brain easier to get oxygen, the apartment hypertension should be well ventilated. Cold compress on the neck and forehead will help facilitate the condition.
As a single aid, it is possible to take the drug from the group of blockers of angiotensin-converting enzyme in combination with an anesthetic drug (paracetamol, ibuprofen). However, cardiologists are not advised to be treated in this way on a regular basis. The choice of medicines to reduce pressure should be consistent with the doctor - it is he who will help to choose the necessary drug that should always be in a home first-aid kit.
Tablets and medicines
Preparations for reducing pressure are divided into several groups. Let's analyze them in detail.
Inhibitors of an angiotensin glossy enzyme are one of the most popular drugs in the treatment of hypertension. These drugs prevent the transformation of angiotensin 1 enzyme to angiotensin 2, which narrows the lumen of the vessels. The mechanism is simple: vessels are not narrowed - pressure is not growing. Among the ACE inhibitors also exists its gradation:
- Preparations of the first generation: captopril, Benazepril, Zofensoid.
- Second-generation preparations: Leisinopril, Ramipril, Enalapril.
- Third-generation preparations: monopril, fozinap, fozinotek.
A sympathy-adrenal system is responsible for changing blood pressure in the body. Adrenaline and hypothalamus are produced in adrenaline and hypothalamus - neurotransmitters that regulate the work of the cardiovascular system among other things. They stimulate the frequency of heart cuts and contribute to the increase in pressure.
Alpha-adrenoblockers, as can be guessing from the name, help reduce the sensitivity of specific alpha receptors to adrenaline and norepinephrine, due to which the blood pressure is reduced. The most famous drugs are doxazozin, prazozin.
Unlike alpha-adrenoblockers, the drugs of this group block beta receptors, located not only in the arteries, but also in the heart. The principle of action is the same, as well as the therapeutic effect: extension of blood vessels, relief of blood flow and subsequent pressure reduction, as well as a reduction in the frequency and strength of the reduction of the heart muscle. Preparations:
Due to its diuretic effect of diuretics, reduce the load on the heart. In addition, they have a vasodilatory effect, which, as we already know, is also used to reduce pressure. The opinions of specialists regarding the use of diuretics to reduce pressure are diverged: Some consider them the preparations of the first line along with the adrenoblockers, others are convinced that the use of diuretic drugs in the treatment of hypertension is yesterday, since the drugs of this group violate the electrolyte balance. The following groups of diuretics are distinguished:
- Loop. Have a strong but short-term effect. In the treatment of arterial hypertension, they are used in patients with renal failure. Most often used Furosemid, Toramsemed.
- Potassy-saving. Unlike other diuretics, do not remove potassium from the body, although the diuretic effect they have a little weaker. Preparations: spironolactone, amyloride.
- Tiazid. This type of diuretic is used in the treatment of hypertension most often. Under the strength of the action is inferior to loop, but exceed the potassium-saving diuretics. The most common preparations: hydrochlorothiazide, cycloptentiazide.
- Osmotic. This type of diuretics in hypertension is prescribed much less and usually used in inpatient treatment. Most often apply sorbitol, mannitol.
Since the calcium balance and its excess in the blood plasma is considered a predisposing factor in the increase in pressure, the drugs of this group are actively used in the treatment of hypertension. They prevent the flow of calcium into the cells, thereby normalizing blood pressure. And here there is its graduation:
- Dihydropyrin: amlodipine, nifedipine.
- Phenylaclamines: Verapamil, Gallopamil.
- Benzodiazepines: Diltiazem, Klentyaze.
Cardiac drugs at high pressure
In hypertension, ACE inhibitors, alpha-adrenoblastors, beta-adrenoblays and calcium antagonists are used - all of them relate to "cardiac" drugs, since they are prescribed in the treatment of such pathologies such as ischemic heart disease, left ventricular dysfunction and chronic heart failure. In addition to the above-listed medications, you can add here:
Folk remedies for rapid pressure reduction
If there are no medication at hand, and the increase in pressure does not pull on hypertensive crisis, you can use folk methods, although in efficiency they are inferior to drug treatment. Here are some of the most common ways:
- Mustard pieces for the shin. Due to the inflow of blood to the legs, a slight hypotensive effect is achieved.
- Compress with apple vinegar. A folded gauze or towel is wetted in an apple vinegar and applied to the feet. From the point of view of evidence-based medicine, the method is dubious, however, some patients assure that it gives effect.
- Breathing exercises. Within a few minutes you need to do slow breaths and exhalations, taking a comfortable position and closing your eyes. Exhalation should be made by stomach, not a breast. This removes the nervous voltage and improves peripheral blood supply.
- The pressure also helps to reduce the collar zone massage. However, in contrast to the classic embodiment, the movement during stroking should be performed with a slightly large pressure and go down - from the neck to the lower back.
With a significantly elevated pressure, the patient must first calm down, and then - ensure the influx of fresh air into the room and take a convenient position. Clothing must be free, special attention should be paid to the collar.
The sequence of actions to facilitate the status of hypertension is very simple:
- Calm down, do not panic.
- Organize fresh air access (open the window, go outdoors).
- Optimize breathing (deep breath, delay, exhale).
- To impose a cold compress on the forehead, whiskey and the rear surface of the neck.
- Take a soothing agent: from 50 to 100 drops of walkedordin or Corvalol, extract, or dye tincture (valerian).
- Wait 20-30 minutes, again measure the pressure.
- In the case of increased pressure, adopt the drug to reduce pressure (for example, from the group of Blockers of ACE).
When you need to call an ambulance
If 30-40 minutes after receiving the medication, the state does not improve, you should call the ambulance brigade. Indications for the call - pressure from 180/110 and higher, shortness of breath, headache, nausea, rapid heartbeat and sore pain. You need to call the number 003 or 112 and describe the dispatcher in detail all the symptoms.
Injections are used in hypertensive crises (severe condition caused by an increase in pressure from 180/110 and higher) to quickly reduce pressure. During the Soviet Union, a favorite means of ambulance doctors in such situations was a combination of papaverine, sodium metamizol and diphenhydramine, known as "Troinch". It is also applied now, but modern cardiologists insist that it is not necessary to prick this mixture to all in a row: first of all it is important to find out the reason for a sharp increase in pressure - this will help choose the drug correctly.
For example, if the attack provoked a strong nervous voltage, then the drug selection will be diazepam (it is introduced both intramuscularly and intravenously). With a convulsive form of a chisosis to diazepam, the so-called hot blade is connected - magnesium sulfate (intravenously slow).
Hypertensive crisis can be due to excessive accumulation of fluid (swelling, or water-salt form). In this case, the injection of furosemide is done in combination with nifedipine (subhist).
With a neurovegetative form (adrenal crisis), approximately nifedipine is used to begin with, and in the absence of the expected effect, the clonidine is injected.
Preventive measures with inclination to elevated pressure include nutritional correction and lifestyle. This is how it looks in practice.
It is necessary to limit the consumption of salts and products rich in sodium (fatty meat, seafood, eggs). Alcohol, coffee and energy drinks are also not recommended for use. The diet should be enriched with vegetable fiber and low-fat milk-like products. It is also necessary to use more products rich in potassium (bananas, spinach, garlic).
It is strongly recommended to refuse smoking. You must learn to avoid stress and sleep at least 8 hours a day. To strengthen the cardiovascular system, it is necessary to join moderate physical exertion, since hypodymna is one of the predisposing factors. In addition, physical activity in combination with healthy diet helps to normalize body weight. This is an urgent question, since people with overweight are predisposed to hypertension. With caution, nasal sprays should be applied - they contribute to the increase in pressure (not to mention the ability to cause addiction). It is recommended to take such dietary supplements such as L-carnitine, hawthorn extract, coenzyme Q10 and fish oil.
From the point of view of modern medicine, the pressure from 140/90 and higher is considered increased, but this is a fairly conditional criterion, since many patients even 130/85 cause a tangible deterioration of well-being. People prone to hypertension should always have medicines in a home aid kit to reduce pressure appointed by the doctor. For the prevention of hypertension, it should be abandoned by bad habits, maintain physical activity, avoid stress and adhere to a healthy power scheme.
- Yu.N. Fedulaev, A.V. Fandev, N.V. Baltic // arterial hypertension
- I.E. Schazova, L.G.ratova, S.A. Baktsov, D.V.Nibereydze // Diagnosis and treatment of arterial hypertension
- IG Menshikova, E.V. Magalyas // Clinic, Diagnosis, Principles of Treatment and Prevention of Arterial Hypertension
Buy good medicine from increased pressure is not easy. The pharmacist in the pharmacy will rarely help, immediately sends to the doctor. Is it really so difficult to recommend a reliable drug at an affordable price? Let's try to figure out the types of drugs and the principles of their reception.
Few people in our time did not hear any of hypertension, or high pressure. This is not surprising - after all, in the modern world, every third adult faces this problem and is forced to look for ways to solve it.
Arterial pressure is considered elevated if its value is 140/90 mm Hg. Art. or higher, regardless of the age of a person. Most often, the increase in pressure is an independent disease, which is called hypertensive disease. But sometimes hypertension is a symptom of some other disease (for example, kidney disease, thyroid gland, adrenal glands). In this case, in addition to reducing the numbers, it is necessary to treat the main disease.
Symptoms such as:
- "Flies" before your eyes;
- Unpleasant sensations in the heart.
With the appearance of any of them, it is worth measuring your blood pressure. If it is higher than the norm - you need to take care of its decline.
Does it happen that a person does not bother anything, but his pressure is improved? Unfortunately, such cases are not uncommon. That is why it is so important to control your pressure even with normal well-being. Many mistakenly think that if there are no symptoms, then it is not necessary to reduce the pressure. Indeed, why drink pills if you feel good? Alas, the frequency of complications of hypertension does not depend on whether you feel it or not.
Terrible complications :
- myocardial infarction;
- Renal failure.
The higher the pressure, the greater the risk of their development.
Funds to reduce pressure are needed to almost all patients with hypertension. At the initial stage of the disease, with a minor increase in pressure, sometimes it is possible to give indicators to normal a change in lifestyle (diet, weight loss, struggle with stress, physical activity). But most patients still need constant reception of drugs. If the treatment is stopped, then high pressure, and with it unpleasant symptoms, the risk of complications are returned. In the treatment, the level of pressure and maintenance of the diary patient is very important, in which its indicators are recorded. This allows you to choose optimal treatment, accurately assess its effect.
Nowadays, a large number of drugs that reduce pressure have been created. Consider the main groups of these drugs.
They suppress (inhibit) one of the enzymes involved in the increase in pressure is often used as medicines for the first choice at the beginning of the treatment of hypertension.
The advantages of this group:
- Do not affect the frequency of the pulse (they can be assigned to any indicators);
- do not cause increasing levels of cholesterol and blood sugar;
- In diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, they not only reduce pressure, but also warn the development of renal failure;
- These medicines are also effective in chronic heart failure.
But for pregnant women (or planning pregnancy), this group will not fit - it can have a negative effect on the fruit. Also, sometimes, on the background of the reception of these drugs, a dry cough appears. If he is very worried about the patient - a replacement for a means from another group is needed.
Blockers of angiotensin receptors (sconce).
Their action mechanism is close to the drugs of the previous group, but blocks the process at another level. In general, they have the same properties that ACE inhibitors. They are often prescribed if there is a dry cough when taking ACE inhibitors, since this group does not have such a side effect.
Reduce the pressure by acting on the beta-adrenoreceptors of the heart and blood vessels. In addition to lower pressure, these drugs regenerate pulses. Preferably with a tendency to frequent heartbeat, but at the original rare pulse it is not recommended. When selecting a dose and treatment, the control of the pulse is obligatory (it should be no less than 50 shots per minute).
They are also recommended to use with a combination of hypertension with coronary heart disease or chronic heart failure. And when combined with bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), it should be used with caution - it is possible to strengthen bronchospasm.
Reduce the pressure due to the effects of cell calcium channels. They can be used with a combination of hypertension with bronchial asthma, COPD, diabetes mellitus, kidney disease.
Diltiazem , Verapamil , Isoptin (extended form) - Also renew the pulse and can be used as an alternative to beta blockers.
Cordaflex , Normodipin , Lerkamena - Not a demoling pulse, render a vasodilatory action. They are particularly effective when increasing the diastolic ("lower") pressure.
Above the excess water and sodium from the body. Especially relevant for people who have eaten or signs of heart failure. At Indapamide extended action is the least expressed diuretic effect and a minimum of side manifestations, but at the same time it stabilizes pressure well.
With caution, this group should be used with raising blood sugar and uric acid in the blood.
Central Action Preparations
Reduce pressure by acting on receptors in the brain. As a rule, they are added to combinations of other drugs, if it is not possible to achieve the desired effect.
In the treatment of hypertension, combinations of several active substances are often used. According to studies, the use of combinations is more efficient than simply an increase in the dose of the drug, and causes fewer side effects. Many drugs with joint use complement and strengthen each other effect. That is why many combined drugs have been created when 2, and sometimes three medicines are contained in one tablet. Their reception is simultaneously efficient and very convenient.
Combinations of 2 drugs:
- ACE inhibitor + Diuretik: ENAP N, Ko-Dotroton, Noliprel ;
- APE inhibitor + calcium antagonist: Tarka, Dalneva, equator ;
- Angiotensin receptor blocker + Diuretik: Lozap Plus, Waltacor N, Earby Clo ;
- Angiotensin receptor blocker + calcium antagonist: Lortenza , oddness, aprovask;
- Beta blocker + calcium antagonist: Koncord Am. , logism.
Combinations of 3 drugs:
- ACE inhibitor + Diuretik + calcium antagonist: Ko-Dalneva , triplicsam;
- An angiotensin receptor blocker + diuretik + calcium antagonist: co-ignosure, Ko-Extort .
In the selection of treatment, hypertension is usually started with small doses, and if necessary, they gradually increase them. It is impossible to drastically reduce the pressure to the norm, if it is initially increased. It is better to first stabilize it at a less high level (for example, if the initial hell is more than 180/100, to achieve values not exceeding 150-160 / 90 mm Hg. Art.), And after a while, try to strengthen therapy taking into account its tolerability.
Choosing optimal treatment is not easy. Even doctors are required at this time. It is necessarily active participation of the patient in conducting a diary, regular reception of drugs. An independent change in the treatment regimen or its termination can lead to unpleasant consequences until complications of hypertension (heart attacks, strokes). If for some reason you have changed the reception of the drugs, do not hide it from the doctor. Only together, sustainable results can be achieved.
- Clinical recommendations. Arterial hypertension in adults. Russian Cardiology Society 2019
- Bokarev I.N. Arterial hypertension: a modern look at the problem // Wedge. honey. 2015; 93 (8): 65-70
Properties of pills from hypertension
Not every means produced by the pharmacological company is suitable for any patient. Medicines differ in the mechanism of action and the main substance. This leads to the emergence of restrictions that take into account when selecting therapy.
Preparations that reduce blood pressure, are primarily affected by the vascular wall, myocardium and other organs. When the funds are selected, take into account possible concomitant pathology. To this end, the tablets from increased pressure in their properties are divided into several groups:
- Long action. Their therapeutic effect is achieved by slow suction from the digestive system, which does not allow pressure to rise above normal values. Reduce the indicators will turn out, taking the prescribed dosage of the drug once, it is calculated for a day.
- Quick action. Medicines make it possible to avoid complications that are possible with sharp pressure jumps. Many patients with arterial hypertension are interested in how to quickly knock down high numbers without harm to health. Tablets from this group are characterized by the possibility of treatment only if necessary. They are referred to as ambulance drugs in the development of a hypertensive crisis, to quickly reduce increased pressure.
There are no funds that will always apply the same patient. What pills from high pressure are the most effective, can only say the doctor in each individual case. Any medicine is discharged by a patient taking into account age, possible complications and concomitant diseases. When you get acquainted with the body to components, the prescribed scheme for therapy is often changed.
Groups of drugs
To maintain indicators within the rate of resistant patients, it is recommended to assign a combined scheme. The combination of several drugs allows not only to remove high pressure quickly, but also reduce the risk of complications. List of drug groups for hypertension treatment:
- ACE inhibitors.
- Beta adrenoblockers.
- Calcium channel blockers.
- Alpha adrenoblocators.
Reception of several tablets from various groups allows you to reduce the daily dosage due to synergistic action between them. Some schemes suggest a single taking medication from hypertension, which can be served throughout the day.
Beta blockers reduce pressure, reducing the impact of pressor amenines (adrenaline, norepinephrine) to the receptors in the heart muscle. These means affect the reduction of myocardium and replete rhythm, which is reflected in physical activity. Before bringing down the high pressure, you need to calculate the pulse. Such a procedure is important to choose the correct dosage and no longer aggravate the problem, causing the weakness of the sinus node. Blockers are good pills from pressure, and depending on the degree of impact on the heart muscle, they are divided into several groups:
The first category medicines are selectively affected by myocardium. Their main advantage is to prevent the development and progression of insufficiency, reducing the manifestations of ischemic disease. In addition, they slow down the heart rhythm and the risk of sudden death.
Non-selective drugs are contraindicated with patients suffering from bronchial asthma and bronchitis in chronic flow with obstruction. Similar beta blockers athletes and patients with atherosclerosis are not recommended. With a light form of the disease, the doctor prescribes a minimum dose that will be the best solution in the treatment of such patients. It is non-selective funds that are included in the protocol of assistance in chronic heart failure.
Effective high-pressure pills from this group are most often prescribed by people of young age. If the tool is not combined with others, no more than four weeks continues the therapy. Then preparations from hypertension that approached the patient are combined with medicines from other groups. This is necessary to compile a long treatment scheme. Most often use such medicines:
Medicines of this group are not prescribed to patients with impaired conduction in myocardium, no matter how their pressure would not be. For them, there is a certain tactic of reference with the combination of other, no less effective means that quickly reduce the indicator.
Therapeutic effect is achieved by influencing vessel receptors. As a result, it is blocked by the work of a sympathetic vegetative system. Reducing the concentration of active amines allows the arterial walls to relax, which leads to a gradual restoration of normal blood pressure.
Tablets from this group are effective preparations for reducing blood pressure. Most often use:
Like any drug from pressure, a means of such a category have cons. After taking the healing effect is distinguished by a short effect. Due to this, the risk of developing a brain circulation or heart attack is increasing. Knowing how to quickly reduce pressure with tablets, you must be prepared for complications. A sharp drop in indicators leads to short-term ischemia tissues, which adversely affects the body. Most often, such jumps occur under the influence of the stressful factor briefly.
The task of diuretics is the removal of excess salts and fluid from the body. Such means is obtained quickly lower pressure and facilitate the patient's condition. At the beginning of therapy, the diuretic effect is significantly expressed. Many drugs from this group can not only reduce blood pressure, but and reduce the swelling of peripheral tissues, deriving electrolytes (potassium, magnesium). To maintain the normal balance of trace elements, it is recommended to eat dried fruits, bananas or baked potatoes, or take preparations that replace them.
Effective pills from a diuretic pressure:
To preserve potassium in the body and do not drink additional drugs, you can take diuretics with a potassium-saving action. From the entire list of listed tablets retain it only "Veroshpiron" and "Toramseid". With the deficiency of the element, patients feel strong convulsions in the mornings in the area of the icy muscles and other symptoms of shortage.
Depending on the degree of severity and the drug, which will prescribe a doctor, to bring down the high pressure will quickly get better in the combination of diuretics with beta blockers.
Means affecting the central nervous
The means to reduce the blood pressure of this category suppress the activity of the nervous system. As a result, there is an oppression of the designed reflex or its block at the stage of the synaptic transmission of the impulse. Quickly reduce arterial pressure with their help will be in any stressful situation or with a deterioration in a state that does not depend on provoking factors.
The best preparations from among alpha stimulants:
The medicines listed above are infrequently prescribed. They are needed if it is impossible to eliminate the provoking factor by other means. Prolonged use is not recommended due to the development of side effects. Normal phenomena - weakness and drowsiness after taking brain stimulants. Continuous treatment with drugs for rapid pressure reduction leads to a violation of memory and coordination. If you tighten the therapy for several years, then the medicine can provoke the development of dementia or alzheimer's disease.
The task of drugs is to block the synthesis of angiotensin II. Substances have a vasoconstrictor effect, as well as reduce the mass of the heart, which leads to a decrease in hypertrophy (heart remodeling). These drugs not only quickly reduce blood pressure. They have protective properties against organs that become the first target with hypertension.
In the presence of damage in the heart muscle, the means for rapid pressure reduction gradually reduce their severity and improve the forecast for life. The same effect is observed in heart failure at constant reception.
The best medicine against increased pressure is the fact that the doctor appointed during the timely handling of the patient in the early stages of the development of the disease.
These include such drugs:
- "Capoten", "Captive", "Enalapril", "Dotroton".
- "Physiotens", "Moksogamma", "Ebrutil".
- "Metoprolol", "Anaprilin".
The best medicine for hypertension in the event of a sharp jump - "Captive". It is prescribed as a means of first aid with a hypertensive crisis. The drug cannot be taken for a long time due to the large risk of mortality, hypotension and fainting.
First, in the first days or a week of treatment, unpleasant symptoms may appear. Tablets from high-pressure rapid action cause weakness in patients, dizziness when changing the position of the body. Some complain about dry cough - the main reason for changing the medicinal product. Inhibitors are not recommended to drink pregnant women.
Nitrate-containing funds are not the best pressure pills. As an independent drug is not used. The hypotensive mechanism arises due to the extension of the vessels. Most often, nitrosorbide, nitroglycerin is used for this purpose.
In the absence of ambulances, patients are worried than quickly bring down pressure. Well reduce the resistance of vessels medicines from the group of spasmolitics. Of these, the best preparations:
Each patient is important to know how to quickly reduce pressure with pills on their own to avoid hypertension complications. Antispasmodics expand small vessels and redistribute liquid circulating in the bloodstream. As a result, there is a gradual decline in pressure.
Before reducing the pressure, it is necessary to measure its level. With high indicators and heavy forms of the course of antispasmodics are ineffective. Therefore, funds will be needed that have an oppressive effect on the vascular center.
Calcium channel blockers
To maintain the tone of the vascular wall, calcium is required. Increased concentration of trace element contributes to the emergence of muscle contraction. In order to reduce it, the drug-antagonists are used, according to which it enters the cells. Low calcium level relaxes the vessel wall, which allows you to remove the pressure exceeding the valid values.
Most often, patients with hypertension are prescribed such medicines:
Before starting treatment, you need to figure out which pressure pills are better. The means are separated into several groups depending on the duration of the action and the degree of severity of the effect.
Blockers with a short effect are preferable to use to relieve the attack of a hypertensive crisis. They allow you to quickly reduce blood pressure at home. For long-term treatment, reliability preparations (prolonged) are used.
The means of this group have the ability to block specific receptors. As a result, they reduce the pressure of 48 hours. Dry cough, like a side effect, never bothers patients. Sartans do not cause a reaction associated with cancellation syndrome (which is characteristic of beta-blockers) and "slipping" ("minus" of ACE inhibitors). The best remedy for hypertension during its good efficiency and tolerance becomes the optimal choice for patients who have to take medicine daily. Most often use:
Feature of tablets - removal of spasm with vascular walls. This allows them to assign them for the treatment of hypertension of renal origin.
When the pressure is high and does not decrease, whatever the drug is used, prescribe medications that depress the vasomotor center. Many of them are rarely used, which is associated with the probability of addiction. The best drug for the normalization of indicators is "Cloofelin". Elderly when crises, it is appointed as a means of first aid. You can quickly bring down the pressure from the other tablets from the sympatholitic group:
Replane is widely used for therapy due to available cost, but it has a large number of side effects. Therefore, it is recommended to use only in extreme cases. A rapid pressure decrease is achieved with a slight form of hypertension using "Moxonida" and "Andipal".
The most effective high-speed tablets
Patients with hypertension always worries how to quickly knock down the high pressure at home when symptoms of chisosis appear. There is a whole list of funds from different groups. Most often such tablets from high pressure are used:
Quickly remove the symptoms of the crisis, it will be possible with the help of the Tablet "Adelphane" or "Captive", which is put under the tongue. Within 10-20 minutes, the pressure will decrease. The effect that drugs gives up quickly reduces the indicator, but for quite a short time.
If necessary, the appearance of urination occurs in a short time. The means of high pressure in the dosage of 40 mg participates diuresis, which remains the same for 6 hours.
Improving the condition associated with such factors:
- With the removal of excess fluid, which is delayed in the tissues.
- Reducing the volume of blood circulating by vessels.
There are preparations, rapidly normalizing pressure that provide a longer result. The list includes:
The ease of treatment with such drugs is the multiplicity of reception (within a day no more than two times). Preparations from hypertension with a long effect are prescribed to patients since the second stage of the disease.
To obtain a persistent result, treatment needs to continue the combined therapy for at least three weeks. Therefore, when the pressure is normalized, they should be taken further.
Preparations with hypertension are selected taking into account the peculiarities of the patient and the severity of its condition. Depending on the situation, only one option applies tablets, or combined with other means. This approach ensures a decrease in the therapeutic dose and the development of complications, side effects. Patients with a diagnosis of hypertension receive supporting dosages throughout life.
Hello, dear readers. Increasingly, youth faces the problem of increased pressure. But earlier this question concerned only enough older people, with rare exceptions. The fight against hypertension became a nationwide task in a number of world. Therefore, everyone should know that it reduces the pressure at home (tablets, herbal tincture, diet). After all, with this problem, unfortunately, it falls to everyone. What is pressure? Pressure is an indicator of force with which the blood feeds on the vascular walls. Under pressure is usually implied by blood pressure in arteries (blood pressure, or blood pressure). At elevated pressure, it is important to know how to reduce the pressure at home quickly and efficiently.
The pressure has a dual value:
- the maximum indicator (systolic), when the cardiac muscles is reduced, with force throwing blood into the bloodstream;
- The minimum indicator (diastolic), which is registered at the time of relaxation of the heart muscle before the next powerful reduction.
In this order they are indicated. Blood pressure, like atmospheric, is calculated in millimeters of a mercury pillar.
Normally, in an adult, this indicator fluctuates in small limits: the lower value can be from 80 to 90, and the upper - from 120 to 130.
Blood pressure 140 (150) / 90 is already considered overestimated. Although, according to modern ideas, the pressure is not higher than 120/80.
And the indicator 130/90 indicates a prefinencertenzion state. For adolescent age, the optimal indicator is 130/80. This is due to the fact of too fast height of the heart in comparison with the development of the vascular system.
Symptoms of overestimated pressure:
✔ Noise in ears.
✔ Groove pain.
✔ Blurness of view, darkening in the eyes.
✔ Nausea, vomit urge.
✔ Nose bleed.
✔ Redness of the skin of the face and the rapid portion of the chest.
Hypertension (overestimated pressure, hypertension) can develop smoothly. Then a person is experiencing minor ailments, quickly tires, sleeps worse.
These features of developing disease can be lost on a general background. But sometimes such symptoms do not arise at all.
Then the only way to reveal a pre-readonal state is a regular removal of blood pressure testimony. This is exactly what doctors recommend doing.
How to lower the pressure quickly and efficiently
When the increase in pressure is detected, this fact cannot be left without attention. The cause of this state and the presence of concomitant diseases (cardiac, vascular, diabetic, renal) is important.
The degree of pressure increase also needs to be considered.
1 degree - upper indicator 140-160 mm RT. Art.
2 tbsp. - 160 (180) / 100 (110) mm RT. Art.
3 tbsp. - from 180/110 mm RT. Art.
There are several ways to lower blood pressure:
✔ Pharmacological preparations.
✔ Folk tips.
✔ Massage treatments, gymnastics, breathing exercises.
✔ Change of diet.
Each person should know how to reduce the pressure at home quickly and efficiently. What drugs and folk methods apply.
How to downgrade pressure at home
If symptoms of pressure increase have been revealed, you should first make sure of it, making a measurement. If there is no such possibility, you should act, based on the assumption that the indicators are still overestimated.
- You need to lie down or take the half-litigation position.
- The chest should be released - excessive clothes are removed, buttons are unborn, the tie weaken.
- The patient needs a flow of fresh air.
- If the pressure sharply jumped or the patient is bad, you need to seek soon as a delay.
- It is impossible to disturb the patient, to pump the situation. Take yourself in your hands and calm the victim. If necessary, use sedatives (dyeing, valerian, etc.).
- If severe pain occurred behind the sternum, nitroglycerin should be taken, one tablet.
- Between the corns of the patient should be placed.
- If the pressure does not particularly worry and its indicators do not particularly exceed normal, then it should be done without medicines. It is enough to take relaxation measures, prevent mental and physical overloads, avoid salinity and exciting drinks in the diet, do not forget about the benefits of daily fluzards.
What reduces pressure at home
If a non-drug impact did not give the expected results, it should be moved to pharmaceutical preparations. Assigns them only a doctor.
It must be remembered that the treatment scheme, effective for one hypertension, can be absolutely contraindicated to another. So it is not necessary to follow the pseudomedical councils of acquaintances offering very effective medications to reduce pressure. And you should not recommend our drugs to other hypertensive.
Hypotensive medicines divided into two major subgroups. The first includes medicines that are taken to remove acute states.
The second group of medicines includes funds that help maintain normal blood pressure. They are taking a long time.
This includes inhibitors, adrenaline action blockers and calcium antagonists. To the first subgroup, respectively, all other hypotensive drugs belong.
- Diuretic drugs, or diuretics (furosemid, trifas).
- ACE inhibitors (monophil, perindopril).
- Adrenaline Blockers - Alpha and Beta Blockers (Pierroxane, Concor).
- Calcium antagonists, or blockers of calcium nonspecific channels (verapamil, diltiazem).
- Sartans, or angiotensin-II receptor blockers (losartan, telemisartan).
In addition, spasmodic preparations (but-shpa, papaverine, papazole, magnesia, spasmalgon) have a weak antihypertonic effect.
Their plus is that these drugs have relatively few contraindications and side effects.
Antispasmodics are used as additional funds to normalize overestimated pressure.
Some foods can affect the organism so that blood pressure decreases. Therefore, those who wish to normalize its overestimated indicators are recommended to add the following components to the daily diet:
- Lemon. - it is capable of improving the state of vascular walls, increasing their elasticity, prevents the formation of cholesterol;
- Cinnamon - useful spice, contributing to the expansion of vessels, should be used in moderation;
- garlic - with everyday use, it helps to reduce the blood pressure, is a natural vasodilator;
- Ginger - It has a tonic effect, removes spasms, favors relaxing vessels.
With high pressure will help to cope beet. Just need to know that it is impossible to drink freshly peculous beet juice. If you decide to cook it, let him be relieved for several hours. During the day you should not drink more than 100 g of drink. It is useful to eat beets with honey, mixing them in equal proportions.
It is also impossible not to note the benefit to combat hypertension of pomegranates and pomegranate juice. These products have a beneficial effect on vascular walls, improve the composition of the blood, toned, fill the lack of vitamins and minerals.
The volume of vegetables and fruits used in food should be increased. They contain vitamins, potassium and magnesium, which are necessary for the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system.
Also, low-fat fish, dietary meat, dairy products, honey, nuts, cereals, greens must be present in the diet.
What is impossible at elevated pressure
It should be borne in mind that saving dishes can provoke a pressure leap. Therefore, marinades, pickles and other salted products should be avoided, especially chips, shops, salty seeds, nuts, fish, bass, smoked, sausages, etc.
Harmful and fats, especially animal origin. Sharp dishes should also be aside aside.
Drinks that have an exciting action should also stop consumed. This includes not only coffee and alcoholic cocktails, but also strong tea.
The same applies to bitter chocolate, chocolate creams and other confectionery products with cocoa. Explore should be made on purified and unsalted mineral water. But the amount of fluid should be normalized, especially if there are renal disorders.
Drinks down pressure
One way to reduce blood pressure indicators without drugs is the use of some beverages.
- Cocoa. This delicious drink has a tonic effect, contributes to the production of endorphine compounds, has a beneficial effect on the circulatory system. But it is impossible to abuse cocoa, as it contains caffeine and can cause overexcitation of the nervous system and the next jump hell.
- Green tea. An excellent drink with a diuretic effect tones, weakens hypertensive symptoms. It is impossible to use a strong welding, it can negatively affect pressure.
- Carcade. This is flower tea, firming vascular walls and regulating their permeability. It is a natural diuretic and antispasmodic agent, on which its hypotensive impact is based on. Caution! It is impossible to take in the ulcer of the stomach, high acidity and tendency to allergies.
- Beet juice. You can not use as Fresh, needs long upholding. The drink helps to relax vessels. It is recommended to take it in small quantities (no more than 50 ml at a time) in the mixture with other juices (carrot celery, cucumber). The proportion of beetroot at the same time should be several times less.
- Infusion of watermelon seeds. Seeds (2 hours l) are lowered in a glass of boiling water and insist to cooling water. Drink for 20 minutes before meals several times a day as a diuretic. For the same purpose, a powder of watermelon seed can be used. Seeds are pre-dried and listed. Per day just take 0.5 h.
Massage treatments enhance blood circulation, spasms remove, contribute to the elimination of edema, relaxation favors. All this helps to reduce the load on the heart, relieve or remove the attack at all, to prevent the occurrence of the next jumps of pressure indicator.
The impact is made on the cervical and collar zone. You can also massage the chest area and the scalp. You can perform a massage yourself and on your own, but it will be more convenient if the professional massage therapist will be done or at least someone from loved ones.
Stop massage from stroking. Gradually, pressure is enhanced. It is advisable to avoid pain. It is impossible to pressed too much. Especially carefully to affect the spine. Also, neatly need to act in the presence of Moles and warts in the massable region.
The seine-collar part needs to be cooled well, and then remove the stress using strokes. Then you can move to the massage of the upper fraction of the chest. It should not act here.
Finish the procedure is preferably an easy impact on the occipital part of the head. It is stroked, then carefully massage. It is allowed to displace the scalp to improve blood circulation and the activation of nerve endings. Each of the sites are delayed for a few minutes.
The exercise complex should be coordinated with the doctor or instructor on therapeutic physical education. The load must be normalized. Exercise examples.
- To begin with, use walking in place.
- Mahi hands, bending-extension, lifting above head, rotation.
- Concentration on abdominal breathing. Hands better arrange on the stomach. When inhaling the peritoneum is protruding, and in exhalation - retract.
- In a sitting position, the muscles of the buttocks are strained alternately, then rolling from one buttock to another is carried out.
- Lying on the back, serve site-shaped oscillations with a whole body with a small amplitude.
- In the same position, the knees bend and slowly pull them into their heads, then straighten.
- It is necessary to roll over on the stomach and alternately raise your legs.
How to reduce pressure with breathing
Special respiratory movements affect the nervous system, changing the neuroregulatory function of the body.
The main principle: inhale, a small delay, slow exhalation through the mouth collected in the ring. For a long time, it should not be avoided to avoid dizziness.
The back needs to straighten, the shoulders of dilute. A diaphragmal breathing type (abdominal breathing) described above is also practiced.
You can modify the exercise, pressing during its execution to the chin to the chest tennis ball or plastic bottle.
You can try another way to normalize pressure. You need to lie on the back so that the legs raised up can be booined about the wall or cabinet.
It is necessary to breathe calmly and measured, focusing on the respiratory movements. This will help calm down and ensure the outflow of venous blood from the limbs.
How to reduce pressure during pregnancy
The situation in this case is complicated by the fact that many drugs are contraindicated. To normalize hell recommended:
- water with lemon and honey;
- the active rubbing of the oars, especially the urchies;
- Mixed in acetic socks to wear and wind up the feet of the food film.
- Water. Wash warm water. Attach the heating to the collar region or to the icers.
- Acetic compresses and wraps for stop. Vinegar is bred with water 1: 1.
- Herbal decrains.
Herbs to reduce pressure
Thousands of yarrow, valerian, mother-in-law, hawthorn, rosehip, mint, calendula or mixtures thereof are suitable. Drink in the form of tea of pleasant saturation several times a day.
For coofers an alternative to this harmful coffee will be chicory. It tones and positively affects the cardiovascular system. Also to knock hell to help Stevia.
Before the beginning of herbage, consult with the attending physician. A parallel reception of some medicines and bravery is unacceptable.
Read, also, blog articles:
How to quickly reduce the pressure at home - with medicines and without medication.
How to reduce increased pressure using folk remedies.
Food reduced blood pressure.
Lemon, increases or reduces pressure?
Are reduced pressure 90 to 60, the main symptoms.
Author of the article Boris Ivanovich Ilyinsky,
It is possible to quickly reduce the pressure at home even without tablets. To do this, calm down and make some deep breaths. Then, when health improves, you can take warm baths and drink useful herbal tea.
How to reduce pressure at home
First of all, it is necessary to measure the pressure to make sure that the symptoms caused (weakness, nausea, drowsiness, dizziness) are related to it. If the indicator is 130/85 and more, it is really high pressure, i.e. The state of hypertension. To cope with it, it is recommended:
Seek or lie down, calm down, cover your eyes.
Open the window, if hot - turn on air conditioning.
Make a deep, smooth breath, having learned before 5. And in the breath, the stomach should be involved - to make sure that you need to put a hand on it. Make exhale and count again to 5. Repeat several such cycles for 3-5 minutes.
Further, when the well-being improves, you need to pour in a basin feeling hot water (temperature 45 degrees) and put your feet for 5-10 minutes into it. To make a similar procedure and for hands. Thanks to this, the limb vessels will expand, and the pressure will fall into several units.
Then you can hold your hands under the crane with cool (but not icy) water.
At the final stage it is useful to make a massage of the collar zone - at the base of the neck, head, the shoulder area. After that, go to the stomach and chest.
How to reduce pressure without pills
Along with the described instructions for reducing pressure, you can use other domestic products:
Warm, but not hot tea with mint leaves (brewed 10-15 minutes).
Outdoor compress with apple vinegar - soak the fabric and attach it to the feet at the same time. This method gives effect, but it is necessary to use apple, not another vinegar.
Valerian or Corvalol - 15-30 drops on 3 tablespoons of water. It helps calm down, so the indicator stabilizes.
You can take a glass of warm water with 1 tablespoon of honey and a half teaspoon of freshly squeezed lemon juice. And instead of ordinary water, you can use mineral.
Also reduced pressure will help and diuretic tea, for example, based on the fruits of lingonberry, rosehip, leaf of the tocherry, as well as linden colors.
It is important to understand that the measures described help stabilize pressure only for a while. Therefore, in the long run, the lifestyle should be adjusted, abandon the bad habits, comply with the requirements for the diet and lose weight. So, one dropped in excess weight kilogram leads to a resistant pressure reduction per 1 point.
10 products that reduce pressure
Hypertensive is worth adjusting the power, including useful products in the diet, which contribute to a decrease in blood pressure. It should be borne in mind that the unlimited consumption of one or another meal can lead to complications from the digestive system. Therefore, before drawing up a diet, it is worth consulted with a doctor.
A healthy person is recommended in moderate quantities to consume such products:
Broccoli - The cabbage includes substances that not only reduce pressure, but also prevent the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that damage vessels.
Pomegranate juice - it needs to be used in the amount of not more than half a day. Moreover, it is recommended to dilute with water in a 1: 1 ratio.
Red fish of any species contains polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. They strengthen the walls of the vessels, which leads to normalization of pressure. For maximum benefit, fish should be bake or cook, not fry.
Dairy products serve as a source of trace elements like magnesium, potassium and calcium. Especially useful cottage cheese, cheeses of various species.
Black beans also contains many magnesium compounds that contribute to the extension of the vessels and thereby reduce the pressure.
Oatmeal increases vessel elasticity. At the same time, it is best not instant, and the porridge category "Extra" No. 1.
Coffee, in contrast to a common opinion, increases the pressure slightly only in the first minutes. After that, the pressure is reduced. However, it is not necessary to abuse the drink, since coffee has a strong diuretic effect and in large concentrations can lead to a significant increase in the indicator.
Bulgarian (sweet) red pepper contains a large amount of vitamin C, which also contributes to the normalization of blood pressure.
Pumpkin seeds are rich in zinc, whose deficit can lead to a heart attack. To replenish the daily need to eat 20 g of seeds (in terms of purified grains).
Consumption of green tea contributes to the destruction of atherosclerotic plaques, which strengthens the vessels and again allows normalize the pressure.
There are other products useful to regulate the indicator. For example, doctors recommend to use cocoa, natural dark chocolate, almonds and walnuts.
What can not be done at high pressure
First of all, hypertensive needs to be limited or abandoning the consumption of harmful food (excessively salted, acute, oily, as well as flour products). Also worth adjusting the lifestyle:
regular walks in air;
Regular satisfying physical activity;
normal labor and rest mode;
Full sleep at least 7-8 hours per day;
Refusal of smoking and alcohol (strong drinks are especially harmful);
Restriction on hiking in the bath, steam rooms, etc.
In some cases, it is advisable to change the work. Frequent physical and psychological loads, stressful conditions lead to problems in the work of the heart and vessels, including increase in pressure.
According to Russian statistics, about 40% of our compatriots suffer from arterial hypertension. What pressure is considered increased, what kind of symptoms can be accompanied by its increase and how to quickly normalize its indicators?
Normal and pathology
Blood pressure is the pressure that has blood flow on the vessel walls - a parameter having clear boundaries of the norm. The magnitude of blood pressure is fluctuated during the day, including a healthy person. In peace, the pressure is reduced, and with emotional and physical tension, smoking or taking alcohol - can increase.
However, these changes are short-lived. Blood pressure indicators (hereinafter referred to as blood pressure) are returned to the limits of the norm, as soon as the action of the factor contributing to its increase.
For arterial hypertension, a persistent or periodic regular increase in blood pressure level is characteristic.
Currently highlighted six categories of ad1
Optimal - less than 120/80 mm Hg.
- Normal - systolic 120-129 and / or diastolic 80-84 mm Hg.
- High normal - systolic 130-139 and / or diastolic 85-89 mm Hg.
- Arterial Hypertension 1 degree - systolic 140-159 and / or diastolic 90-99 mm Hg.
- Arterial Hypertension 2 degrees - systolic 160-179 and / or diastolic 100-109 mm Hg.
- Arterial Hypertension 3 degrees - systolic 180 mm Hg.st. and more and / or diastolic 110 mm Hg.st. and more.
The first two categories of blood pressure are optimal and normal pressure - are indicators of the normal level of blood pressure, however, with optimal values, the risk of developing cardiovascular complications and mortality is minimal.
According to the classification, the systolic pressure indicators above 129 mm RT extend beyond the reference values. Art. and / or diastolic above 85 mm RT. Art. In adults, the high blood pressure is spoken if the pressure level is 140/90 and above mm Hg. Art.
What does man feel while increasing blood pressure?
Very often arterial hypertension does not manifest clinically - patients feel completely healthy. Their vessels are adapted to high pressure, perceiving it as an absolute norm. At the same time, various organs and systems, especially the heart, vessels are experiencing excessive loads.
In the absence of properly selected treatment, this inevitably leads to the development of complications of hypertension. Among them is stroke and myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, disorder of the kidneys and other pathologies.
The increase in blood pressure may be accompanied by a headache, which, as a rule, is localized in the field of the nape and has a pulsating nature. Pain syndrome can be perceived as a feeling of gravity in the head. Often, with high hell, the pain is not very intense, and many people may not even pay attention to it.
In some cases, the headache occurs during awakening, in others - during emotional bursts, and thirdly - when changing the weather.
Possible symptoms of high pressure, along with headache, also include
- Violation - the appearance of "flies" before eyes, blur;
- Sleep disturbance.
It is important to keep in mind that the links between the severity of the clinical picture and the degree of increasing blood pressure is not. The patient may feel normally and have very high blood pressure indicators, and may notice strong pain and dizziness with an extremely minor increase in blood pressure.
Thus, try to determine the level of pressure on the basis of its condition it is impossible. The only reliable ability to diagnose hypertensive disease and high blood pressure is a regular dimension, including in cases where a person is disturbed.
If the measurement results demonstrate high indicators, you should immediately consult a doctor. The doctor will conduct diagnostics and, if necessary, prescribe appropriate treatment.
What drugs are used to reduce blood pressure?
Drug therapy of arterial hypertension should be carried out not periodically, but for a long time, as a rule, for life, with arterial hypertension, this doctor must constantly monitor the well-being of the patient and the effectiveness of treatment.
Only such a tactic allows to reduce the risk of targeting target organs - kidneys, hearts, vessels, brain and minimize the likelihood of cardiovascular complications, as well as the development of a number of other complications of arterial hypertension.
Modern drugs are used for the treatment of arterial hypertension. With constant reception, they allow to normalize blood pressure, reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications and protect the target organs from defeat.
Optimal preparations for the treatment of arterial hypertension are those that in one-time reception allow you to control the level of hell throughout the day.
Today, preparations of 5 classes are used to treat arterial hypertension.
1. Inhibitors of angiotensipreshing enzyme (ACE)
It impede the production of angiotensin - substance that shows a powerful, pronounced vasoconstrictor effect (enalapril, captopril, perindopril, etc.). As a result of the use and ACE, the arteries expand, and, accordingly, hell decreases.
2. Angiotensin II receptor blockers
Action is similar to ACE inhibitors on the result, but different by the mechanism. The sconium inhibit the receptors with which angiotensin is associated, which leads to the expansion of the vessels and a decrease in blood pressure (Telemisartan, Lozartan, Irbesartan, etc.).
3. Calcium antagonists (calcium channel blockers)
Prevent the penetration of cord muscles and calcium ion vessels involved in reducing. Due to this artery relax, and their diameter increases, which leads to a decrease in blood pressure (amlodipine, verapamil, etc.)
4. Diuretics, or diuretics
Promote an increase in the removal of liquid and salt from the body, normalizing the blood pressure. Most often, tiazide diuretics are used to treat arterial hypertension (indapamide, hydrochlorostiazide).
In emergency situations, when necessary to achieve a significant reduction in blood pressure in a short time, more powerful loop diuretics can be used, for example, furosemide. As a rule, they are prescribed only under the control of the doctor, in the hospital.
5. beta adrenoblocators
Reduce the heart load, reduce the amount of blood, which throws the heart per unit of time and thus normalize the blood pressure (atenolol, bisoprolol, etc.)
A competently composed treatment scheme for arterial hypertension makes it possible to achieve the target level of blood pressure, as well as maintain this indicator at a stable level. At the same time, the risk of developing cardiovascular complications will be minimal.
However, sometimes a sudden and sharp increase in hell is possible. This event is known as hypertensive crisis. As a rule, it is spoken by systolic blood pressure above 180 mm Hg. Art. and / or diastolic above 120 mm RT. Art
Hypertensive crisis can be a manifestation of both hypertension and arterial hypertension against the background of any other pathology, for example, disorders of the kidney function.
The most common causes of a hypertensive crisis are the lack of regular treatment of hypertensive disease or incorrectly selected therapy scheme. But no matter what factor has served to the sharp increase in blood pressure, it is extremely important to take measures to normalize the state as soon as possible.
How to reduce arterial pressure at home?
Hypertensive crisis is always danger. It is associated with the development of a number of serious complications, so if it is developed, emergency assistance is needed. With a sudden sharp increase in blood pressure, it is necessary to cause an ambulance brigade, but before it arrives, if possible, measures should be made to reduce blood pressure.
Quickly reduce the pressure allow antihypertensive preparations of fast and short action, which are recommended to take under the tongue - sublingual, such a method of application allows you to get the necessary effect in a more compressed duration than when orally (inside) reception.
To preparations that are used to operational reduction of blood pressure under hypertensive crisis include
- The ACE inhibitor is distinguished by a rapid hypotensive effect. After oral administration, hell decreases after 15-60 minutes, and the peak effect is achieved in 60-90 minutes. Moreover,captor
Reduces the load on the heart and increases cardiac output. To reduce blood pressure, the drug is used at a dose of 25-50 mg.
- Nifedipine - calcium channel blocker. With sublingual use, the hypotensive effect appears after 5-10 minutes, reaching a maximum for 15-45 minutes. The therapeutic dose of nifedipine to reduce blood pressure is 10 mg.
- Klonidin - The drug showing a powerful hypotensive effect. To reduce blood pressure, the drug is used in doses of 0.075-0.15 mg.
By applying anti-hypotensive drugs, it should be remembered that it is not recommended to sharply reduce the blood pressure within a short period of time. A sharp decline in blood pressure, especially in the elderly, can lead to a violation of the nutrition of the brain, which is manifested by weakness, drowsiness.
Is it possible to reduce the blood pressure without medicinal preparations?
There are a number of opportunities to normalize the indicators of blood pressure without the use of drugs. So, it is proved that the pressure is reduced by increasing physical activity, reducing body weight in people who have overweight, refusal smoking.
An important role in the successful treatment of arterial hypertension is also played by a balanced diet, aimed at increasing the shares of potassium and reduce sodium levels, primarily by reducing the consumption of the cooking salt.
Original article: https://helpheart.ru/arterialnoe-davlenie/lechenie/kak-bystro-snizit/
On first aid, when pressure jumped, the main freelance specialist-cardiologist of the Ulyanovsk region Pavel Alekseevich Bars says.
If you are prone to hypertension, you should always have medicines assigned to your doctor. If they are not with them for any reason, or the pressure mobility for you is not characteristic and the rise occurred suddenly - first of all, it is necessary to measure blood pressure. Below is a table with averaged values of normal blood pressure, but each person should know its individual working pressure.
If the pressure jump exceeds 40 units, it is necessary to immediately cause a precinct doctor or emergency medical care, lie down, lifting the head on the pillow and putting the cold on his feet and warm on the forehead. This will help reduce headache, as well as avoid preinfarclical and delineated state. If the jump exceeds 80 units, you should call an ambulance and lie down, putting the heat on the head and cold on your feet.
If the pressure has not risen much, but it is felt as ailment, it is possible to reduce it independently and without drugs.
1. Heat + cold. This is the main and the most effective technique described above. You need to lie down, removing shy clothes, put a warm compress on the forehead, and on the feet - ice drift.
2. Massage. Rubbing movements need to obscure the collar zone (neck, shoulders, base of the head), then the chest and belly. After the massage you need to lie down.
3. Contrast baths for legs. The feet for 2-3 minutes are descended alternately into cold and hot water. The procedure ends after 20 minutes, cold water.
4. Hot hand bath. Brushes need to be lowered in moderately hot water for 10-15 minutes.
5. Walk. If the weather is not hot, and pushing the pressure is small, you can go on fresh air, sit on the bench. In any case, the influx of fresh air is necessary - to remove shocking clothes, open the window, etc.
6. Breath delay. This technique is used with sharp, but small blood pressure jumps. Breathing is delayed by 8-10 accounts for 2-3 minutes. The procedure must be discontinued if dizziness begins. After that, it is necessary to lie down and remain 10-15 minutes at rest.
7. Nest flux of hot water. The method also applies with a non-rigid pressure jump. With a strong approach, hell is not at any occasion. The rope of hot water is sent to the head for 5-7 minutes.
8. Compress with apple vinegar. Marley or other natural cloth is wetted with apple vinegar and applied to feet for 10-15 minutes.
9. diuretic. A good diuretic tea and lime tea, tea from rosehip and tolokanyan leaves, parsley leaf, possess a good diuretic effect.
10. Drink with lemon and honey. 200-250 ml of mineral water is mixed with 1/2 lemon and a spoon of honey.